Diabetology is the clinical science of diabetes mellitus, its diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. It can be considered a specialized field of endocrinology.

Diabetes, which may have several contributing factors including, but not limited to, ageing, genetic makeup, obesity, leading a sedentary lifestyle, and poor eating habits. There are three types of diabetes found: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes.

While type 1 is due to a total lack of insulin in the body, type 2, the most common type, is characterized by the misuse of insulin and the dysfunction of its secretion. Type 2 diabetes can be considered endemic, as it shows a vast spread all over the world. In 2007 there were 246 million people diagnosed, by 2025 this number may reach 380 million. The approximate number of type 1 diabetics is 11-22 million worldwide.

Uncontrolled diabetes may incite a number of serious complications such as kidney, eye or cardiovascular problems, damaging of the nervous system, ulcers and abscesses. If diabetes is diagnosed at its early stages, complications can be prevented, or controlled.

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